## What is the Zero-Knowledge proof (zk-proof)?

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A Zero-Knowledge proof, also known as zk-proof, is a component from the Zero-Knowledge technology, born in the 1980s from research in computer science and cryptography fields as a method for information validation with more privacy, security, and processing speed.

This is a technique that uses mathematical models and cryptographic protocols to enable a third party authenticator to validate a certain statement as true without needing to or being able to know the statement's content. Such a statement is usually called a zk-proof.

For a zk-proof to be valid, it must satisfy three principles:

1. Completeness: the proof must be verifiable. An honest verifier can always validate the proof by applying the zk-SNARK protocol.
2. Soundness: the proof must be incorruptible. A deceitful prover can't convince an honest verifier the proof is valid.
3. Zero-knowledge: the proof must be sealed. A prover doesn't need to send any additional information to a verifier, except for that which is essential to run a zk-proof validation protocol. The content of the statement can remain private.

In other words, a zk-proof is like a sealed envelope that nobody can open except for its owner. The owner can prove to anyone that the information inside the envelope is true  by using a specific protocol. When verifiers run that same protocol, they can confirm that the envelope contains the information it was said to contain without opening it.

#### Learn how Bitso is using the zk-proof in here:

• The application of a Zero-Knowledge proof to the Proof of Solvency
• How is Bitso providing a Zero-Knowledge proof?
• The advantages of a Zero-Knowledge proof?
• What is zk-SNARK?